Looking at the autumn harvest, it is already the world of machinery.
During the autumn harvest season, several large harvesters are ready to go in the end of the rice fields in Jincun Village, Tangqiao Town, Zhangjiagang, Suzhou. In the past, a month-long autumn harvest lasted, and now it takes less than a week to finish. Wu Jian, head of the Jincun Agricultural Machinery Service Professional Cooperative, said: "The rice is cut back in front of the loess, and one person can't cut two acres of land a day. Now the whole process is mechanized, and the 'lazy man' can grow a good field."
At one time, people in the autumn harvest were busy; now, "the morning in the valley, the noon bag in the grain" has become a common phenomenon. Behind the dramatic increase in agricultural production efficiency is the strong support for agricultural mechanization.
Sixty-five percent of farming and harvesting work is done by agricultural machinery.
Wu Jian, 46, has been farming for more than a decade. The deepest feeling is that the labor force in the village is getting less and less. "When the farmer is busy, the people who can come to work are basically people over the age of 60. It is not good to pay one or two hundred yuan a day." In order to solve the problem of not finding people to plant land, Wu Jian led the formation in 2009. Jincun Agricultural Machinery Service Professional Cooperative. In recent years, the cooperative has successively updated and added more than 100 sets of harvesters, transplanters, plant protection machines and other modern agricultural machinery to serve more than 30,000 acres of farmland. Wu Jian said: "Our cooperatives are now starting from the breeding camp, and can realize the one-stop service of planting, ploughing, machine harvesting and rice milling. Now the annual output value is more than 5 million yuan, and farming depends on agricultural machinery."
"The whole process of mechanization is difficult to achieve by small-scale farmers and small-scale agricultural machinery." Xu Jiang, director of the Agricultural and Rural Bureau of Zhangjiagang City, said that in order to respond to the new requirements of agricultural machinery services and appropriate scale operations, the integration of small farmers and modern agricultural development is realized. In Jincun Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperative, Zhangjiagang adopted the model of “cooperative + family farm” and tried to develop a new format of “full mechanization + comprehensive agricultural service” to provide “one-stop” comprehensive services for surrounding farmers.
The development of Jincun Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperative is the epitome of agricultural mechanization and intelligent development in our province. At present, there are more than 12,000 agricultural machinery service organizations in the province, which are expanded from a single-link operation service to a full-service service. From the simple agricultural machinery operation service to the integration of operation service and agricultural production and operation, the agricultural machinery cooperative service area exceeds 60% of the total. Last year The total income of agricultural machinery service in the province exceeded 30 billion yuan, and the economic, social and ecological benefits of mechanized production were significantly improved.
"Agricultural mechanization should be in the needs of the times, and it is due to the development of the times, and it has also made positive contributions to the times." Shen Yi, deputy director of the Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that the provincial agricultural machinery transformation and upgrading site meeting was held not long ago. Agricultural mechanization is an important basis for transforming agricultural development methods and improving rural productivity, and is an important support for implementing rural revitalization strategies.
Upgrade to "full, high quality and high efficiency"
Recently, the provincial government's document on accelerating the transformation and upgrading of agricultural mechanization and agricultural machinery equipment industry proposes to accelerate the promotion of the two-in-one combination of agricultural machinery (agricultural machinery and agro-integration, mechanized information integration, agricultural machinery service mode and agricultural moderate scale operation, Mechanized production is compatible with farmland construction), and promotes the transformation and upgrading of agricultural mechanization to “two complete and two high” (full-scale, high-quality and high-efficiency).
In our province, the transformation and upgrading has never stopped.
The palm-sized remote control controls a self-propelled boom sprayer with an arm length of 11 meters and a weight of 1380 kilograms. The machine evenly sprays pesticides while walking in the field. This is a demonstration on the 20th at the 3rd China Jiangsu Vegetable Seeds Expo. According to the staff, in the past, the driver was inevitably contaminated with pesticides during the operation. Now, the remote control device is added to protect the health of the driver.
Wei Qing, a large grain grower in Dongba Street, Gaochun District, Nanjing, heard of agricultural machinery demonstrations and arrived at the Expo site in Jiangning District, Nanjing early in the morning. He planted 640 acres of land, and the degree of mechanization exceeded 80%. "Now the labor force is in short supply, and grain production is supported by the whole process of machinery. We only have four people, and we can complete the whole process from planting to harvesting." Wei Qing said that a rice transplanter can complete 40 to 50 mu of land a day. It is 20 times of artificial. Calculating the use of machinery in one acre of land saves more than 200 yuan, and 640 acres is close to 150,000 yuan. One machine can save money for one machine a year.
Mechanized information integration allows farmers to grow a field with a click of a mouse. In the "Tiantian Fresh" vegetable base of Yonglian Village, Nanfeng Town, Zhangjiagang City, a slender hose runs straight through the vegetable pot, and the fertilizer mixed with organic fertilizer and water is evenly and accurately delivered to the root soil of the crop. This is an integrated irrigation system for water and fertilizer, which can accurately control the irrigation water volume and fertilization amount of dozens of vegetable greenhouses, and greatly improve the efficiency of water and fertilizer utilization and labor efficiency. The vegetable base also uses the Internet of Things technology to build an environmental monitoring system, a video surveillance system, a smart cloud platform, etc., so that technicians can remotely monitor and control the environment inside the shed through the mobile APP.
There are still many shortcomings to be completed in the agricultural machinery province.
To what extent can agricultural machinery be achieved? The known answer is unmanned.
In June last year, China's first round of agricultural unmanned operation pilot project was officially launched in Xinghua, a national demonstration zone for food production functions. The unmanned combine harvester jointly developed by Jiangsu University and Zhonglian Heavy Machinery successfully completed the test mission and achieved unattended driving and operation throughout the entire process.
This is an innovative attempt to invest in the most intelligent types of agricultural machinery, the most complete professional field, and the full coverage of the operation process. "We achieve precise operation through the dual-antenna satellite navigation system, and at the same time develop relevant control protocols, carry out the transformation and promotion of unmanned technology for different agricultural implements, and gradually realize the unattended participation of the entire field operation process." Project leader Wei Xinhua, a professor at Jiangsu University, introduced.
"Machine substitution" is the development direction of agricultural machinery. However, looking at the whole province, the development of agricultural mechanization in Jiangsu is not balanced. The mechanization rate of rapeseed, soybean, potato and cotton cultivation is generally not more than 40%, and the lowest is only 8%. This is in line with the status of Jiangsu's economic province and agricultural machinery province. Does not match. In addition, the effective supply of agricultural machinery is insufficient, and there are phenomena of “inorganic availability”, “organic difficulty” and “no good use”. Some high-efficiency agricultural machinery are mostly small batches and varieties, with low return on investment, and low enthusiasm for R&D and production. It cannot meet the requirements of farmers and modern agricultural production, and imported machinery is expensive and difficult to promote on a large scale. In addition, many farmland and facilities agricultural infrastructure construction is not matched, and the agronomy is not standard, which restricts the operation capacity, agricultural mechanization scale and operation efficiency. At present, there is still a gap between “farming to good” and “good to strong” in Jiangsu agricultural machinery.
Shen Yi said that it is a realistic choice to solve the problems in the development of agricultural machinery in Jiangsu in the new era and accelerate the transformation and upgrading of agricultural machinery. In this regard, Jiangsu is actively guiding the upgrading of single-performance agricultural machinery equipment to composite agricultural machinery and equipment, and the development of manned driving to unmanned intelligent agricultural machinery and equipment, ensuring timely replacement of agricultural machinery and equipment. At the same time, through the integration of agricultural machinery, agro-informatization and informationization, we have continuously broken through the bottleneck of agricultural machinery technology development and promoted the upgrading of agricultural machinery technology. It is ensured that by 2025, the province's agricultural machinery and equipment matching ratio will be more reasonable, and the advantages of high-end agricultural machinery and equipment will reach the domestic leading level. The agricultural machinery socialized service field will fully cover the demand, the agricultural machinery use efficiency will be significantly improved, and the agricultural machinery operating conditions will be improved and gradually completed.